Smooth Aster identification

parts of Smooth Blue Aster (Symphyotrichum laeve) and other asters. These species include a leaf beetle (Ophraella pilosa), the Red-spotted Aster Mirid (Polymerus basalis), larvae of a leaf-mining fly (Nemorimyza posticata), larvae of the Papery Blister Gall Midge (Asteromyia laeviana), the Short-winged Meadow Katydid (Conocephalu Noteworthy Characteristics Symphyotrichum laeve, commonly called smooth aster, is a Missouri native that typically occurs in prairies, rocky glades, dry open woods, roadside banks and thickets. Stems are usually unbranched with variable, mostly toothed, smooth, bluish green foliage

Smooth Blue Aster (Symphyotrichum laeve

Sometimes the stem is very purple, thus leading to confusion with Purple-stemmed Aster (Symphyotrichum puniceum) (although the stems of that plant are usually fuzzy) - always use the leaves to identify Smooth Aster. Wildflowers ● Asters ● Goldenrods ● Aster ID ● Goldenrod ID Range map for Smooth Aster (Symphyotrichum laeve Identification and Characteristics of Smooth Blue Aster Smooth Blue Aster is generally upright and erect as long as it receives sunlight from all sides, and is exposed to wind. If it is sheltered from the sun in a direction, the tendency is to lean towards where it does receive sunlight

Smooth Aster. Symphyotrichum laeve. Plant Type: Herbaceous flower clusters are held on strong stems in late summer/early fall. A fairly early-blooming aster. Foliage is very attractive, deep blue-green, forming basal clumps. A long-lived aster. The Missouri Prairie Foundation is a 501(c)3 organization. Federal Tax ID: 23-7120753 Content. Description. Smooth Aster (Symphyotrichum laeve) typically occurs in prairies, rocky glades, dry open woods, roadside banks and thickets. Stems are usually unbranched with variable, mostly toothed, smooth, bluish green foliage. Small flowers with violet blue to purple (sometimes white) rays and yellow center disks appear in open, loose, panicle. Smooth Aster is a hardy plant that defies frost and keeps on blooming, often into November, with a profusion of lavender-blue, star-like flowers. The yellow flower-center turns reddish, later in the season. The leaves are smooth to the touch which makes this species different from most asters HABITAT TYPES AND PLANT COMMUNITIES : Smooth blue aster is a component of many types of plant associations, most notably of mixed prairie types such as needlegrass (Stipa comata, S. spartea)-blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis) and wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus, Pascopyrum smithii)-junegrass (Koeleria cristata) type The smooth or smooth blue aster, S. laeve, is a native species that ranges from two to four feet tall at maturity. It has a spread of one to two feet. Photo by Joshua Mayer, Wikimedia Commons, via CC BY-SA With an upright profile and little branching, the stems have a bluish tint, and the upper leaves are very tiny

Smooth Crabgrass — Department of Plant Science

Other common names: Glaucous Aster, Smooth Blue Aster, Smooth-leaved Aster Other scientific names: Aster laevis French names: Aster lisse Family: Composite Family (Asteraceae) Group: Asters Distinctive features: Very smooth, waxy, almost rubbery leaves. Smooth stem. Similar species: • New England Aster (Symphyotrichum novae-angliae) - flowers have many more rays, leaves & stem are rough Western aster (Symphyotrichum ascendens) is similar to smooth blue aster, but has bracts that are dark and round at the tips. White panicle aster (Symphyotrichum lanceolatum) has larger flower heads than smooth blue aster, 2-3.5 cm, fine hairs along the stems, and upper leaves that do not clasp stem The leaves on Smooth Blue Aster are indeed smooth to the touch. The similar-looking Sky Blue Aster (Symphyotrichum oolentangiense) has rough leaves, as do many other Asters. The tough stem often takes on a shade of blue also and will allow Smooth Blue Aster to stand tall during its long late summer to mid fall bloom This entry was posted in Uncategorized and tagged achene, Friends of Plant Conservation, Narrow-leaved Smooth Aster, Natural Heritage Program List of Rare Plant Species of North Carolina 2014, pappus, Plant Conservation Preserves, Plant Conservation Program, population augmentation, Symphyotricum laeve var. concinnum vertebrate browsing on this species. Smooth aster was the latest blooming plant species of the 43 natives we tested. Availability: Species is available as seed, plug or container grown material from various native plant nurseries. See the Michigan Native Plant Producers Association. For more information: View the online USDA-NRCS PLANTS database

Keystone Value: The Aster (Aster) genus supports over 90 species of butterfly and moth caterpillars, providing food for a variety of birds and mammals. Smooth aster is a lovely perennial typically occurring in prairies, dry open woods, roadside banks and thickets Smooth Aster is a 2' to 3' tall native perennial. It grows well in dry to medium well drained soils in full sun but will tolerate more damp sites in partial shade. The large showy blue flowers may remain until the plant is frost killed in late October or November Symphyotrichum laeve (formerly Aster laevis) is a flowering plant native to Canada and the United States. It has the common names of smooth blue aster, smooth aster, smooth-leaved aster, glaucous Michaelmas-daisy and glaucous aster In its relatively few, large (long-rayed) heads this species somewhat resembles S. ciliolatum; furthermore, sometimes broad leaves below the middle of the stem taper to the base, even appearing to have narrowly to broadly winged petioles; however, S. ciliolatum does not have the clasping leaf bases so characteristic of S. laeve. The species is. The following animal species have been reported as pollinators of this plant species or its genus where their geographic ranges overlap: Bombus vagans, Bombus bifarius, Bombus borealis, Bombus centralis, Bombus fervidus, Bombus flavifrons, Bombus huntii, Bombus mixtus, Bombus rufocinctus, Bombus sylvicola, Bombus ternarius, Bombus terricola.

Smooth Blue Aster is a widespread species in Minnesota. Blooming from August through October, the species is an important late season source of pollen and nectar for many pollinator species. The waxy, smooth leaves that clasp its smooth stems make the species unique from other asters. Its attractive foliage and abundant flowers make Smooth Blue Aster a good addition to native gardens as well as prairie restoration, reclamation and stormwater projects smooth aster Interesting Notes Introduced by Dr. Richard Lighty of the Mt.Cuba Center, Aster laevis 'Bluebird, now Symphyotrichum laeve 'Bluebird', is the superlative selection of our native smooth blue aster. This tall, vase-shaped wildflower was discovered in a Connecticut garden and became the performing aster in Mt. Cuba's evaluations Alpine species, Aster alpinus. Here are 21 tips for keeping asters in line, broken down into four categories: Control Spreading. There are some excellent ways to keep plants from taking over the yard, including: 1. Grow them in containers. Choose pots with widths that can accommodate mature plant dimensions, with a depth of at least 12 inches

Symphyotrichum laeve - Plant Finde

Asters can be confusing and challenging to identify because many of their features vary from plant to plant of the same species. For example, the stem of one specimen may be hairy, that of another smooth, yet they are the same species. Flower colours also vary, as does stem colour (as in Purple-stemmed Aster (Symphyotrichum puniceum)) Saskatchewan Native Plant Photos. This website has photos and descriptions of over 600 wildflowers found in Saskatchewan, Canada. Wildflowers have been photographed from the province's Prairie, Cypress Upland, Parkland, and Boreal ecoregions. There are photos of native forbs and shrubs, both common and rare, and, photos of introduced species.

Azure Aster (Symphyotrichum oolentangiense) - Ontario

Smooth Aster (Symphyotrichum laeve) - Ontario Wildflower

  1. Aster Varieties . The taxonomy of asters is somewhat complicated, as it now includes several genera of plants, all within the Asteraceae family. At one time, all the species were considered part of the Aster genus, but several species have now been reassigned to the Symphyotrichum genus. The flowers known as New England asters, for example, now belong to Symphyotrichum and are known as S.
  2. Plant Search > Smooth blue aster Smooth blue aster (Aster laevis) About Smooth blue aster. Smooth blue aster is a Herb. Herbs are broad-leaved, herbaceous (non-woody) plant. Herbaceous plants are also known as forbs or wildflowers . Plant Names (Nomenclature
  3. At maturity, smooth blue aster can reach between 1 ½ to 3 feet in height and has an erect growth habit. The leaves are up to 6 inches long and 1 ¼ inches wide. One key identification feature is that the foliage is sessile, meaning no petiole or stem. The leaf margins are smooth-edged
  4. Petal colors may be white or shades of pink, red, purple, lavender or blue. The Italian aster (Aster amellus) and its hybrid, Aster x frikartii, produce blooms that measure 2 to 2 1/2 inches..

Complete Guide to Smooth Blue Aster - From Seed to Bloom

Smooth Blue Aster is similar to Sky Blue Aster (Symphyotrichum oolentangiense) and grows in a similar habitat, blooming at about the same time. The leaves of Sky Blue Aster are arrowhead shaped near the base and do not clasp the stem, its flowers are generally smaller, less than 1 inch across, and its phyllaries are appressed with a small. Egg-shaped stem leaves are alternate and unstalked, with smooth or shallow-toothed edges. Basal leaves are stalked and senesce before flowering. Few to many small flower heads occur in open clusters near the ends of branches. Each head is backed by 4-5 whorls of pointy bracts and consists of 15-30 blue ray florets surrounding 35-40 yellow disc. The Calico Aster ( Symphyotrichum lateriflorum) is a somewhat lanky plant with smaller flowerheads (about 1/3 or 8 mm. across) and fewer ray florets per flowerhead (about 10) than many similar asters ( Symphyotrichum spp. ). In this regard, it is similar to the Heath Aster, but the latter species is a more compact plant with leaves that are. Smooth Aster (Symphyotrichum laeve)- Bright blue flowers & shapely blue-green leaves make this one of the best, end-of-season bloomers. Uses: bee Smooth Aster is one of the most attractive and long-lived of all the asters. Blooming from late August through to the end of October, the leaves of Smooth Blue Aster are smooth to the touch and it puts on a fabulous floral display with a profusion of lavender-blue, star-like flowers long after most flowers are finished

Smooth Fleabane is fairly well separated into two distinct ranges in Minnesota, where highest concentrations are throughout our northwestern counties and then a smaller range limited to Carlton and Pine counties that are continuous with several adjacent counties in northwest Wisconsin. (Aster) species, though Fleabane flowers have many more. Smooth coneflower is a perennial herb in the Aster family ( Asteraceae) that grows up to 3.3 feet tall from a vertical root stock. The large leaves may reach eight inches in length and three inches in width and taper into long leafstalks toward the base. They are smooth to slightly rough in texture

Smooth Aster - Grow Native

54 Absent at flowering : 253 Compound: 2- or 3-parted : 103 Compound: Palmate : 310 Compound: pinnate 1 time : 142 Compound: pinnate 2 times : 35 Compound: pinnate over 2 times : 3192 Simple: is not divide About Asters. There are quite a few species and varieties of asters out there! The two most commonly encountered asters in the home gardening world are the New England aster (Symphyotrichum novae-angliae) and the New York aster (S. novi-belgii), but you will see a range of hybrid varieties available in showy pinks, blues, and purples at garden centers New England aster, Aster novae‐angliae smooth aster, Aster laevis May Jun Jul Sep OctAug Approximate Bloom Period American elder, Sambucus canadensis Apr willow, Salix spp. wild cherry, Prunusspp. black chokecherry, Aronia melanocarpa silky dogwood, Cornus amomum www.nativeplants.msu.edu Tuell et al. 200

Eupatorium fistulosum | UMass Amherst Landscape, Nursery

The smooth blue aster blooms from late summer to fall in dry soils, in full sun or part shade. 18″-3′ Flax-leaved stiff-aster ( Ionactis linariifolia ) This diminutive aster of dry sandplains, pine barrens and open acidic woods is a great plant for dry gardens, edges of patios, or sandy or gravelly meadows Each packet of Smooth blue aster contains 320 seeds.Seed $3.00 Sold Out. Plant Species Synonym Names. Scientific: Symphyotrichum laeve. Common: smooth aster. Family. Aster - Asteraceae. Image. See more images Smooth blue aster Detail. Description. The flowers of this aster are one of the biggest. It blooms profusely and asters are one of the.

'Bluebird' Smooth Aster 'Bluebird' Smooth Aster is robust, upright herbaceous perennial that blooms in September and October. It is easily grown in average, dry to medium, well-drained soil in full sun. With showy, violet blue rays and yellow centers it is an attractant to butterflies New England aster usually has full, dense flowers, blooming in late summer or early fall and lasting for several weeks. Similar to New England aster, New York aster includes many short cultivars, but there are quite a few that are 2 to 4 feet tall, with some over 4 feet tall. New York aster, though, tends to have thinner stems and smooth leaves

The root has been used for centuries in Chinese medicines. The flower and leaves are also reported to provide health benefits. Flowers can be eaten fresh and added to a salad as can the leaves. When harvesting in September or early October be sure the plant is dry (dew is gone) and cut stem about 10 cm above the ground The above listed weed species are those that occur frequently in Southwest Montana, although there are many more weed species have identified by the State of Montana to be invasive. The above list does not include any species that are not currently designated as noxious weeds by this State, however there are many other plant species that should. Bluebird Smooth Aster (Aster laevis 'Bluebird') covers itself with a profusion of violet-blue flowers that bloom in late summer through fall. It is a highly-rated wildflower that attracts all types of native bees and butterflies including migrating Monarchs. Shipping begins the week of August 30th, 2021 Learn More Flowers: long linear ovate (egg-shaped) with pointed tip lobes; wavy margins hollow, purplish, and smooth white tubular flower

Smooth Aster. Symphyotrichum laeve. Herbaceous Perennials. Smooth Phlox. Phlox glaberrima. Herbaceous Perennials. Southern Prairie Aster. Eurybia hemispherica. Herbaceous Perennials. Spicebush. Lindera benzoin. Shrubs. Spider Milkweed. The Missouri Prairie Foundation is a 501(c)3 organization. Federal Tax ID: 23-7120753 Content. 8×14. Symphyotrichum ericoides × Symphyotrichum novae-angliae → Symphyotrichum ×‌amethystinum (Nutt.) Nesom is an uncommon American-aster hybrid known from CT, MA, RI, VT. It is normally found growing with both parental species and is intermediate in morphology between them

Aster laevis Smooth Blue Aster. Item #: ASTLAE02 Species Type: Native Cost: $336.00/lb Categories: Herbaceous Flowering Species, Pollinator Favorites, Uplands & Meadows Classification: Herbaceous Perennial Height: Up to 6.3 Ft Pollinator Value: Very High Description: Provides attractive late summer color in meadows; sought by deer for browse Heath Aster (Aster ericoides) thrives on the driest sand and gravel soils, producing a blizzard of bright white flowers in late summer and early fall.Creeping slowly by rhizomes to form nice patches, Heath Aster is one of our longest lived native asters. Plant it with Sky Blue Aster and Smooth Aster for a great fall show Soskin Smooth Cream Very High Protection SPF 50+ is long lasting and water resistant. This smooth cream provides a broad and photostable protection to your skin. Thanks to its light texture, you can comfortably use it in your entire family including your children Aster Flower Shape, Size, Texture & Odor. Known for lending color to the fall landscape with their late-season blooms, aster (Aster spp.) plants boast a variety of growth habits from 6-inch ground. Agrecol Native Nursery, 10101 North Casey Road, Evansville, WI 53536. Telephone: 608.223.3571 Fax: 608.884.4640 Email: ecosolutions@agrecol.co

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Smooth Aster, Symphyotrichum laeve Wisconsin Pollinator

More work is needed on identification of these specimens. Specimens from wetlands in the rest of the state are a good match for this plant. The species name laevis refers to the smooth stems. State Ranking Justification. There are ten existing populations along the Hudson River and one in western New York CHECK AVAILABILITY. FIRST IMPRESSIONS: Along with the goldenrods and native grasses, asters are the quintessential herbaceous fall color plants of North America. This one is a sturdy branching perennial with smooth gray-green leaves.. Aster laevis thrives in sun and adapts to most soils. Plants produce billowing panicles of blue-violet flowers in late summer and autumn Species Type: Native Product Categories: Herbaceous Flowering Species, Pollinator Favorites, Uplands & Meadows Classification: Herbaceous Perennial Characteristics: Branched stems; smooth, waxy leaves that clasp to stems. Habitat: Dry woods, rocky ledges, roadsides. Bloom Period: August to October Flower Color: Blue, purple Foliage Color: Blue. The identification tool is intended to help hobbiests identify wildflowers based on easily observable characteristics. The database is searched for flowers that have ALL of the characteristics that you selected, so leave the search all option selected for any information that your're not sure of Durex Feel Smooth Condoms is one of the finest condoms created to enhance feeling between you and your partner, bringing you closer through sex. As the Feel Smooth condom is extra fine with extra lubrication, it aims to heighten sensitivity and increase your pleasure

Aromatic aster did better than the species widely recommended in garden books, the 3- to 4-foot-tall New England aster (Symphyotrichum novae-angliae, formerly Aster novae-angliae). New England asters can be seen in fall in many parts of the Garden. In the trial, they got more powdery mildew than aromatic aster and their habit was more rank. Wildflowers of Colorado - directory, photographs and descriptions - over 500 of the most common species, from the Rocky Mountains, the high desert and the eastern plain It is from the aster or asteraceae family. Commonly used names for goldenrod species of plants include: Aaron's rod, woundwort, goldruthe, and solidago. Goldenrod was used to make a tea substitute in Boston after the history changing tea party in 1773

Smooth Aster is usually found in grasslands, open woods, and woodland edges. The foliage is browsed by deer, especially early in the year. It attracts insects important to young quail and turkey and it attracts numerous pollinator species Aster laevis. AKA Symphyotrichum laeve. Extremely hardy. Lavender to light blue flowers appear on hairless stems. Greenish-blue or gray-green, narrow leaves, up to 10 cm long. Bloom Time: Late summer into the fall. Flower Size: 3 cm. ZONE: 3 This publication includes photos of all North Dakota state and county listed noxious weeds as well as troublesome plants such as poison ivy. Methods to identify and control each weed are discussed and why the plant is a concern in the state is explained. This is a major revision since the first publication in 2010 Get a 18.000 second smooth aster (aster laevis) stock footage at 24fps. 4K and HD video ready for any NLE immediately. Choose from a wide range of similar scenes. Video clip id 4334264. Download footage now Weed Identification. Weeds commonly submitted to the Virginia Weed Identification Clinic appear in the list of weeds. Narrow the list by choosing characteristics that match your unknown plant or search for plants by name. Please contact your local Extension office if you cannot identify your weed. Search

Vernonia fasciculata (Prairie Ironweed): Minnesota Wildflowers

The word Aster is of Greek derivation and refers to the Starlike flowers that can be white, red, pink, purple, lavender and blue, mostly with yellow centers. The genus Aster is now generally restricted to the old world species, with Aster amellus being the type species of the genus (and of the family Asteraceae) One of the most attractive blue asters, Symphyotrichum laeve (Smooth Blue Aster) is a clump-forming perennial boasting usually unbranched stems topped with profuse clusters of daisy-like flowers in late summer and fall. Blooming for weeks, the flowers, usually less than 1 in. across (2.5 cm), feature golden-yellow centers surrounded by rich lavender-blue rays Smooth Aster is a fine choice for the garden, but it is also a good selection for planting in outdoor pots and containers. Because of its height, it is often used as a 'thriller' in the 'spiller-thriller-filler' container combination; plant it near the center of the pot, surrounded by smaller plants and those that spill over the edges

smooth white oldfield aster accepted scientific name Symphyotrichum racemosum (Elliot) G.L. Nesom rules for finding collection records Aster fragilis (154) Aster racemosus (19) Symphyotrichum racemosum (1164) family name Asteracea Smooth Crabgrass. Reddish base of mature plant. Image courtesy of Matthew Naedel. Smooth Crabgrass. More Content from Plant Identification Plant Identification. Plant Identification Overview Broadleaf Weeds Broadleaf Weeds. Aster, Whiteheath Brambles Buckwheat, Wild Burcucumber Burdock, Commo Positive. On Sep 29, 2014, coriaceous from ROSLINDALE, MA wrote: This is one of the best asters for the northeastern US. Medium violet-blue 1 1/4 to 1 1/2 flowers in profusion from mid September to mid October. Smooth, blue-green foliage that's generally free of the diseases that commonly afflict aster here, and does not defoliate at the base Smooth Aster is one Aster species that is preferred as a host plant by the Pearl Crescent butterfly. This sweet little orange, black, and cream butterfly is a familiar sight in the garden whenever its favorite plants are around! How to Grow

Symphyotrichum novae-angliae, commonly called New England aster, is a Missouri native perennial which occurs in moist prairies, meadows, thickets, low valleys and stream banks (Steyermark) throughout the State. It is a stout, leafy plant typically growing 3-6' tall with a robust, upright habit. Features a profuse bloom of daisy-like asters (to. Symphyotrichum Ascendens, Western Aster. Symphyotrichum ascendens is a freely branching plant, forming upright clusters of pale purple or lavender flowerheads (15 to 40 ray florets), centered on a ring of yellow disc florets (usually 25 to 65) that become purplish when mature. The involucral phyllaries are dark green (red at the tip), short but.

Using a magnifying glass, you would be able to detect the presence of five stamens on each of these male flowers. Ragweed's female flowers are even easier to overlook than its male flowers, as they are hidden in the upper leaf axils—the angles between the upper side of a leaf or stem and the supporting stem or branch Leaves oval, opposite, up to 3. Inflorescence is a raceme of at least 5 tubular flowers, 5-lobed, 2-lipped, up to 1½ long. Throat and lower lobes of corolla often have red freckles. Fleshy stem has smooth leaves. Special: Native. The red freckles attract pollinators and act as nectar guides Medium-sized (for an aster) light blue to pale violet/lavender ray flowers with yellow disk flower centers. The better-known New England aster is more purple than the smooth aster. Bright green, smooth, long, narrow foliage. One of the showier prairie native asters, IMHO. In our rich NE Iowa soil we get specimens in the 4-5' range

Smooth Aster - Aster laevis Prairie Nurser

Aster laevis ' Bluebird ', or smooth aster, is a tall vased-shaped wildflower with large 1″ diameter blue flowers held in cloud-like clusters at the tips of the arching branches. Pinch back the young shoots in June for denser habit and more flowers, but it is not essential. Photo by mmwm, on Flickr Symphyotrichum patens - Late Purple Aster, Spreading Aster. Formerly classified as Aster patens.There are three varieties of Symphyotrichum patens - gracile, patens, and patentissimum. Var patens is the only one found in the northeastern states, var patentissimum isn't found in the coastal states. Some authorities do not recognize var gracile.The species is possibly extirpated in Maine; it is. Habitat: Smooth blue aster occurs in various habitats, ranging from moist woods to dry, open prairies. It is most notably associated with mixed prairie plant types, and is also a dominant understory species in quaking-aspen communities. Adaptation USDA hardiness zones for smooth blue aster are 4 to 8. Smooth blue aster occurs on various soil. Clarkia pulchella. many-flowered monkey-flower 48%. Erythranthe floribunda. American waterlily 48%. Nymphaea odorata. velvet lupine 48%. Lupinus leucophyllus. bigleaf lupine 48%. Lupinus polyphyllus

Artemisia vulgaris | UMass Amherst Landscape, NurseryPetasites hybridus | UMass Amherst Landscape, NurseryWhite Angelica, Sharp-toothed Angelica - Angelica arguta

SKU: N/A Category: Individual Flower Seed Species Tag: Seed. Description. Symphyotrichum Laeve. Smooth Blue Aster prefers dry to mesic soils, with full sun to partial shade. This plant will grow medium height and have a blue-purple fall bloom. Smooth Blue Aster pairs well with Little Bluestem, Butterfly Weed, and Wild Bergamot This little rock-garden plant bears one-and-one-half inch, violet flowers, although white, blue, lavender, and pink flowers are also available. Alpine asters grow best in full sun and well-drained, moist soil. Wonder of Stafa hybrid aster is said to be one of the ten best perennials. The soft, lavender-blue flowers blend well with most other. The stem is smooth and hairless or nearly hairless, often reddish, and often covered with a whitish, waxy bloom (glaucous). Lower stem leaves are on winged petioles and the base of the blade is never heart-shaped. Middle stem leaves clasp the stem at the base and are less than 5 times as long as wide. Upper stem leaves are stalkless Description: Profusion of deep-blue blossoms, MN native. The hardy and thrives in almost any soil. Ornamental Features. Smooth Aster has masses of beautiful lavender daisy flowers with yellow eyes at the ends of the stems from late summer to late fall, which are most effective when planted in groupings. The flowers are excellent for cutting Perennial. Smooth, twining vine, without milky juice. Opposite leaves smooth, broad, heart-shaped, pointed, with long petioles. Small, whitish flowers in clusters on stalks from leaf axils. Seed pod brownish-green, smooth and pointed. Seed brown, oval, flattened, with silky white hairs. Found in rich, moist, cultivated fields and fence rows